Check Your Understanding of Krashen’s Hypotheses:
(See all 9 posts in this series, plus a satirical piece on Krashen’s work here)
Check Your Understanding
of Krashen’s Hypotheses
1. _________________________ is the unconscious absorbing of language when exposed to comprehended messages.
2. _________________________ is getting conscious, focused knowledge of certain elements of a language through grammatical explanations, drills and studying.
3. _________________________ results in knowing about the language.
4. _________________________ results in being able to understand and use the language spontaneously and unconsciously.
5. The ________________________ hypothesis suggests that the grammatical elements of a language are acquired in a predictable sequence that cannot be altered by focusing on certain features.
6. The ________________________ hypothesis is the idea that emotional factors such as anxiety, stress, social acceptance and self-confidence can have a significant impact on learning.
7. The ________________________ hypothesis is a refinement of the Input Hypothesis. It asserts grammar and vocabulary are the result of language acquisition, not the cause.
8. The ________________________ hypothesis is the idea that reading in the target language is the fastest, best and easiest way to improve one’s reading ability, writing ability, vocabulary, spelling and grammar.
9. The ________________________ hypothesis states that language is acquired by comprehensible input rather than by conscious learning.
10. The ___________________ __________ hypothesis declares that if the input in interesting enough, learners will acquire the language regardless of whether they are focused on improving or not.
11. The _______________________ hypothesis says that knowing grammar can help students to correct their speech and writing under certain conditions.
12. The _______________________ hypothesis states that with enough comprehensible input students will automatically get the vocabulary and grammar they are ready to acquire.
(Can be used more than once)
• What do the letters in the mnemonic acronym MANIAC stand for?
• What would world language teaching be different if instructors were using all or most of Krashen’s hypotheses to guide their instruction?
• Which traditional instruction activities could be altered to be more communication-based and in line with Krashen’s hypotheses?
• Which traditional activities might be omitted altogether?
• What types of C.I.-based activities could take their place?
• Why do you think textbook publishers and teachers have been slow to adopt these ideas about second language acquisition (SLA) in spite of over 40 years of research indicating their validity?
• Which traditional methods might arguably be supported by recent SLA research?
The previous posts in this series are found here.