COMPELLING INPUT (Krashen’s Hypotheses Series, #7 of 9)

(Previous post in this series: The Affective Filter Hypothesis) C: The Compelling Input Hypothesis (2011) "When the input is compelling you acquire whether you are interested in improving or not."     This hypothesis asserts that compelling input trumps everything else in language acquisition. It emphasizes the role of subconscious acquisition while attention is focused elsewhere. Language comes along for the ride when students are engrossed in a topic. The goal is to find material and topics that captivate students. These are things that not just merely amuse them or that they find mildly interesting. This hypothesis is sometimes titled [...]

By | 2018-05-15T16:31:57+00:00 May 15th, 2018|Categories: Compelling Input, Krashen|0 Comments

THE AFFECTIVE FILTER (Krashen’s Hypotheses Series, #6 of 9)

(Previous post in this series: The Input Hypothesis) A: The Affective Filter Hypothesis "Learning is filtered through the emotions." Psychological safety is one of the most important factors in a successful team. The classroom is no different. It needs to be a safe space where students are free to take chances. The class must be free of insults, put-downs, judgmental statements and crude language. Even snide remarks, rolling eyes, smirks, mockery, and lack of inclusion can have a negative impact on students’ ability to learn. Establishing behavioral norms and expectations in the classroom and then rigorously enforcing them is crucial [...]

By | 2018-05-15T22:38:42+00:00 May 14th, 2018|Categories: Classroom Management, Krashen, Reading Body Language|0 Comments

THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS (Krashen’s Hypotheses Series, #5 of 9)

(Previous post in this series: The Natural Order of Acquisition)   I: The Input Hypothesis This is the big one "Comprehensible input is the cause of language acquisition."   This is the most influential of Krashen’s hypotheses—the one that has changed the way world languages are taught. It asserts that we develop language ability when we understand messages in the target language. Languages are not acquired by studying, by traditional practice, or by listening and repeating. Languages are acquired as we hear or read messages that we can understand in the language. In How Languages Are Learned (2013), Lightbown and [...]

By | 2018-05-17T20:50:00+00:00 May 10th, 2018|Categories: Incomprehensible Input, Krashen, SLA Theory|0 Comments

Seminar in Seattle

Did a seminar in Seattle this week (the 5th of 5 this month) for the Institute for Educational Development, a division of the Bureau of Education and Research (BER). 62 enthusiastic attendees. Fabulous group! Saw some old friends and made some new ones. Woven throughout every aspect of the day was the crucial need for relationships and empathy. Talked about what works in the world language classroom to make it a place where acquisition happens joyfully and enthusiastically: • How modern Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory applies to best-practice teaching • The difference between acquisition and learning in world language teaching [...]

THE NATURAL ORDER OF ACQUISITION (Krashen’s Hypotheses Series, #4 of 9)

(Previous post: Acquisition/Learning) N: The Natural Order of Acquisition Hypothesis "Students acquire elements of grammar in a predictable order that is unaffected by teaching." Stephen Krashen and other researchers contend that the order of acquisition is a natural feature of the human brain. It cannot be altered or rushed. The ability to recognize and produce certain aspects of grammar, and much of the accompanying vocabulary, unfolds as students are exposed to comprehensible input. The natural order of acquisition is not the teaching order. It is useful as a guide in setting expectations, but it is not a blueprint for teaching. [...]

By | 2018-05-15T16:25:13+00:00 April 30th, 2018|Categories: Acquisition, Krashen, Light Reading, Sheltering Vocabulary, Word Frequency|0 Comments

ACQUISITION / LEARNING (Krashen’s Hypotheses Series, #3 of 9)

All of the posts about Stephen Krashen's Hypotheses are available here. (Previous post: The Monitor Hypothesis) A: The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis Very important for teachers to get "Language acquisition and language learning are two different things." Language acquisition is an unconscious process. Acquisition happens when the student is hearing the language or reading in the language but is focused on something other than on the language itself as subject matter. Acquisition happens when the student is focused on the message. Language learning is conscious, focused and purposeful. It can feel difficult. Ironically, what passes for learning is often nothing more than short [...]

By | 2018-05-15T16:33:59+00:00 April 29th, 2018|Categories: Acquisition vs. Learning, C.I. Skeptics, Krashen, SLA Theory|0 Comments